EVANGELII GAUDIUM: OVERVIEW

With his opening paragraph, Pope Francis clearly sets out the purpose of his Apostolic Exhortation – to encourage Christians to embark on a new chapter of evangelisation, based on and characterised by the joy of the Gospels.

1. The joy of the gospel fills the hearts and lives of all who encounter Jesus. Those who accept his offer of salvation are set free from sin, sorrow, inner emptiness and loneliness. With Christ joy is constantly born anew. In this Exhortation I wish to encourage the Christian faithful to embark upon a new chapter of evangelization marked by this joy, while pointing out new paths for the Church’s journey in years to come.

INDEX

The joy of the gospel [1]

I. A joy ever new, a joy which is shared [2-8]

II. The delightful and comforting joy of evangelizing [9-13]

Eternal newness [11-13]

III. The new evangelization for the transmission of the faith [14-18]

The scope and limits of this Exhortation [16-18]

CHAPTER ONE

THE CHURCH’S MISSIONARY
TRANSFORMATION
 [19]

I. A Church which goes forth [20-24]

Taking the first step, being involved and supportive, bearing fruit and rejoicing [24]

II. Pastoral activity and conversion [25-33]

An ecclesial renewal which cannot be deferred [27-33]

III. From the heart of the Gospel [34-39]

IV. A mission embodied within human limits [40-45]

V. A mother with an open heart [46-49]

CHAPTER TWO

AMID THE CRISIS
OF COMMUNAL COMMITMENT
 [50-51]

I. Some challenges of today’s world [52-75]

No to an economy of exclusion [53-54]
No to the new idolatry of money [55-56]
No to a financial system which rules rather than serves [57-58]
No to the inequality which spawns violence [59-60]
Some cultural challenges [61-67]
Challenges to inculturating the faith [68-70]
Challenges from urban cultures [71-75]

II. Temptations faced by pastoral workers [76-109]

Yes to the challenge of a missionary spirituality [78-80]
No to selfishness and spiritual sloth [81-83]
No to a sterile pessimism [84-86]
Yes to the new relationships brought by Christ [87-92]
No to spiritual worldliness [93-97]
No to warring among ourselves [98-101]
Other ecclesial challenges [102-109]

CHAPTER THREE

THE PROCLAMATION OF THE GOSPEL [110]

I. The entire people of God proclaims the Gospel [111-134]

A people for everyone [112-114]
A people of many faces [115-118]
We are all missionary disciples [119-121]
The evangelizing power of popular piety [122-126]
Person to person [127-129]
Charisms at the service of a communion which evangelizes [130-131]
Culture, thought and education [132-134]

II. The homily [135-144]

The liturgical context [137-138]
A mother’s conversation [139-141]
Words which set hearts on fire [142-144]

III. Preparing to preach [145-159]

Reverence for truth [146-148]
Personalizing the word [149-151]
Spiritual reading [152-153]
An ear to the people [154-155]
Homiletic resources [156-159]

IV. Evangelization and the deeper understanding of the kerygma [160-175]

Kerygmatic and mystagogical catechesis [163-168]
Personal accompaniment in processes of growth [169-173]
Centred on the word of God [174-175]

CHAPTER FOUR

THE SOCIAL DIMENSION
OF EVANGELIZATION 
[176]

I. Communal and societal repercussions of the kerygma [177-185]

Confession of faith and commitment to society [178-179]
The kingdom and its challenge [180-181]
The Church’s teaching on social questions [182-185]

II. The inclusion of the poor in society [186-216]

In union with God, we hear a plea [187-192]
Fidelity to the Gospel, lest we run in vain [193-196]
The special place of the poor in God’s people [197-201]
The economy and the distribution of income [202-208]
Concern for the vulnerable [209-216]

III. The common good and peace in society [217-237]

Time is greater than space [222-225]
Unity prevails over conflict [226-230]
Realities are more important than ideas [231-233]
The whole is greater than the part [234-237]

IV. Social dialogue as a contribution to peace [238-258]

Dialogue between faith, reason and science [242-243]
Ecumenical dialogue [244-246]
Relations with Judaism [247-249]
Interreligious dialogue [250-254]
Social dialogue in a context of religious freedom [255-258]

CHAPTER FIVE

SPIRIT-FILLED EVANGELIZERS [259-261]

I. Reasons for a renewed missionary impulse [262-283]

Personal encounter with the saving love of Jesus [264-267]
The spiritual savour of being a people [268-274]
The mysterious working of the risen Christ and his Spirit [275-280]
The missionary power of intercessory prayer [281-283]

II. Mary, Mother of Evangelization [284-288]

Jesus’ gift to his people [285-286]
Star of the new Evangelization [287-288]

Given in Rome, at Saint Peter’s, on 24 November, the solemnity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, King of the Universe, and the conclusion of the Year of Faith, in the year 2013, the first of my Pontificate.

FRANCIS


 

 

 

 

[1] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Gaudete in Domino
(9 May 1975), 22: AAS 67 (1975), 297.

 

[2] Ibid. 8: AAS 67 (1975), 292.

 

[3] Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est (25 December 2005), 1: AAS 98 (2006), 217.

 

[4] Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 360.

 

[5] Ibid.

 

[6] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975), 80: AAS 68 (1976), 75.

 

[7]Spiritual Canticle, 36, 10.

 

[8]Adversus Haereses, IV, c. 34, n. 1: PG 7, pars prior, 1083: “Omnem novitatem attulit, semetipsum afferens”.

 

[9] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975), 7: AAS 68 (1976), 9.

 

[10] Cf. Propositio 7.

 

[12] Ibid.

 

[14] Encyclical Letter, Redemptoris Missio (7 December 1990), 34: AAS 83 (1991), 280.

 

[15] Ibid., 40: AAS 83 (1991), 287.

 

[16] Ibid., 86: AAS 83 (1991), 333.

 

[17] Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 548.

 

[18] Ibid., 370.

 

[19] Cf. Propositio 1.

 

[20] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici (30 December 1988), 32: AAS 81 (1989) 451.

 

[21] Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 201.

 

[22] Ibid., 551.

 

[23] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Ecclesiam Suam (6 August 1964), 9, 10, 11: AAS 56 (1964), 611-612.

 

[24] Second Ecumenical Vatican Council, Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio, 6.

 

[25] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Oceania (22 November 2001), 19: AAS 94 (2002), 390.

 

[26] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici (30 September 1988), 26: AAS 81 (1989), 438.

 

[27] Cf. Propositio 26.

 

[28] Cf. Propositio 44.

 

[29] Cf. Propositio 26.

 

[30] Cf. Propositio 41.

 

[31] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops Christus Dominus, 11.

 

[33] Cf. Propositio 42.

 

[34] Cf. Canons 460-468; 492-502; 511-514; 536-537.

 

[35] Encyclical Letter Ut Unum Sint (25 May 1995), 95: AAS 87 (1995), 977-978.

 

[36] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 23.

 

[37] John Paul II, Motu Proprio Apostolos Suos (21 May 1998): AAS 90 (1998), 641-658.

 

[38] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio, 11.

 

[39] Cf. S. Th., I-II, q. 66, a. 4-6.

 

[40]S. Th., I-II, q. 108, a. 1.

 

[41]S. Th., II-II, q. 30, a. 4: “We do not worship God with sacrifices and exterior gifts for him, but rather for us and for our neighbour. He has no need of our sacrifices, but he does ask that these be offered by us as devotion and for the benefit of our neighbour. For him, mercy, which overcomes the defects of our devotion and sacrifice, is the sacrifice which is most pleasing, because it is mercy which above all seeks the good of one’s neighbour” (S. Th., II-II, q. 30, a. 4, ad 1).

 

[42] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei Verbum, 12.

 

[43] Motu Proprio Socialium Scientiarum (1 January 1994): AAS 86 (1994), 209.

 

[44] Saint Thomas Aquinas noted that the multiplicity and variety “were the intention of the first agent”, who wished that “what each individual thing lacked in order to reflect the divine goodness would be made up for by other things”, since the Creator’s goodness “could not be fittingly reflected by just one creature” (S. Th., I, q. 47, a. 1). Consequently, we need to grasp the variety of things in their multiple relationships (cf. S. Th., I, q. 47, a. 2, ad 1; q. 47, a. 3). By analogy, we need to listen to and complement one another in our partial reception of reality and the Gospel.

 

[45] John XXIII, Address for the Opening of the Second Vatican Council (11 October 1962): AAS 54 (1962), 792: “Est enim aliud ipsum depositum fidei, seu veritates, quae veneranda doctrina nostra continentur, aliud modus, quo eaedem enuntiantur”.

 

[46] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Ut Unum Sint (25 May 1995), 19: AAS 87 (1995), 933.

 

[47]S. Th., I-II, q. 107, a. 4.

 

[48] Ibid.

 

[49] No. 1735

 

[50] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio (22 November 1981), 34: AAS 74 (1982), 123.

 

[51] Cf. Saint Ambrose, De Sacramentis, IV, 6, 28: PL 16, 464: “I must receive it always, so that it may always forgive my sins. If I sin continually, I must always have a remedy”; ID., op. cit., IV, 5, 24: PL 16, 463: “Those who ate manna died; those who eat this body will obtain the forgiveness of their sins”; Saint Cyril of Alexandria, In Joh. Evang., IV, 2: PG 73, 584-585: “I examined myself and I found myself unworthy. To those who speak thus I say: when will you be worthy? When at last you present yourself before Christ? And if your sins prevent you from drawing nigh, and you never cease to fall – for, as the Psalm says, ‘what man knows his faults?’ – will you remain without partaking of the sanctification that gives life for eternity?”

 

[53] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis (25 March 1992), 10: AAS 84 (1992), 673.

 

[54] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Ecclesiam Suam (6 August 1964), 19: AAS 56 (1964), 609.

 

[55] Saint John Chrysostom, De Lazaro Concio, II, 6: PG 48, 992D.

 

[56] Cf. Propositio 13.

 

[57] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Africa (14 September 1995), 52: AAS 88 (1996), 32-33; ID.,Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (30 December 1987), 22: AAS 80 (1988), 539.

 

[58] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia (6 November 1999), 7: AAS 92 (2000), 458.

 

[59] United States Conference Of Catholic Bishops, Ministry to Persons with a Homosexual Inclination: Guidelines for Pastoral Care (2006), 17.

 

[60] Conférence Des Évêques De France, Conseil Famille et Société, Élargir le mariage aux personnes de même sexe? Ouvrons le débat! (28 September 2012).

 

[61] Cf. Propositio 25.

 

[62] Azione Cattolica Italiana, Messaggio della XIV Assemblea Nazionale alla Chiesa ed al Paese (8 May 2011).

 

[63] J. Ratzinger, The Current Situation of Faith and Theology. Conference given at the Meeting of Presidents of Latin American Episcopal Commissions for the Doctrine of the Faith, Guadalajara, Mexico, 1996. Translation in L’Osservatore Romano, English Language Edition, 6 November 1996. Cf. Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 12.

 

[64] G. Bernanos, Journal d’un curé de campagne, Paris, 1974, 135.

 

[65] Address for the Opening of the Second Vatican Council (11 October 1962): 4, 2-4: AAS 54 (1962), 789.

 

[66] J.H. Newman, Letter of 26 January 1833, in The Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman, vol. III, Oxford, 1979, 204.

 

[68] Thomas À Kempis, De Imitatione Christi, Lib. I, IX, 5: “Dreaming of different places, and moving from one to another, has misled many”.

 

[69] We can benefit from the testimony of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux, who speaks of one particular Sister whom she found especially disagreeable, where an interior experience had a decisive impact: “One winter afternoon I was engaged as usual in my little task. It was cold and growing dark… Suddenly I heard in the distance the harmonious sounds of a musical instrument. I began to imagine a well-lit room, draped in gold, and in it, elegantly dressed young ladies exchanging worldly compliments and courtesies. Then I looked at the poor sick woman whom I was attending. In place of a melody, I heard her occasional groans and sighs… I cannot express what took place in my soul. All that I do know is that the Lord illumined it with the rays of truth which so surpassed the flickering glow of earthly revels, that I could scarcely believe my happiness” (Ms. C, 29v-30r, in Oeuvres Complètes, Paris, 1992, 274-275).

 

[70] Cf. Propositio 8.

 

[71] H. De Lubac, Méditation sur l’Église, Paris, 1968, 321.

 

[72] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 295.

 

[73] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici (30 December 1988), 51: AAS 81 (1989), 413.

 

[74] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration Inter Insigniores on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (15 October 1976): AAS 68 (1977) 115, cited in John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici (30 December 1988), note 190: AAS 81 (1989), 493.

 

[75] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem (15 August 1988), 27: AAS 80 (1988), 1718.

 

[76] Cf. Propositio 51.

 

[77] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia (6 November 1999), 19: AAS 92 (2000), 478.

 

[78] Ibid, 2: AAS 92 (2000), 451.

 

[79] Cf. Propositio 4.

 

[80] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 1.

 

[82] Cf. Propositio 6; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern WorldGaudium et Spes, 22.

 

[83] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 9.

 

[84] Cf. Third General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Puebla Document, 23 March 1979, Nos. 386-387.

 

[85] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et Spes, 36.

 

[86] Ibid, 25.

 

[87] Ibid, 53.

 

[88] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte (6 January 2001), 40: AAS 93 (2001), 295.

 

[89] Ibid.

 

[90] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio (7 December 1990), 52: AAS 83 (1991), 300; cf. Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi Tradendae (16 October 1979) 53: AAS 71 (1979), 1321.

 

[91] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Oceania (22 November 2001), 16: AAS 94 (2002), 383.

 

[92] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Africa (14 September 1995), 61: AAS 88 (1996), 39.

 

[93] Saint Thomas Aquinas, S. Th. I, q. 39, a. 8 cons. 2: “Without the Holy Spirit who is the bond of both, one cannot understand the connecting unity between the Father and the Son”; cf. I, q. 37, a. 1, ad 3.

 

[94] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Oceania (22 November 2001), 17: AAS 94 (2002), 385.

 

[95] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia (6 November 1999), 20: AAS 92 (2000), 478-482.

 

[96] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 12.

 

[97] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio (14 September 1998), 71: AAS 91 (1999), 60.

 

[98] Third General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Puebla Document, 23 March 1979, 450; cf. Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 264.

 

[99] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia (6 November 1999), 21: AAS 92 (2000), 482-484.

 

[100] No. 48: AAS 68 (1976), 38.

 

[101] Ibid.

 

[102] Opening Address of the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops (13 May 2007), 1: AAS 90 (2007), 446.

 

[103] Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 262.

 

[104] Ibid., 263.

 

[105] Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, S. Th., II-II, q. 2, a. 2.

 

[106] Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 264.

 

[107] Ibid.

 

[108] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 12.

 

[109] Cf. Propositio 17.

 

[110] Cf. Propositio 30.

 

[111] Cf. Propositio 27.

 

[112] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Dies Domini (31 May 1998), 41: AAS 90 (1998), 738-739.

 

[113] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975), 78: AAS 68 (1976), 71.

 

[114] Ibid.

 

[115] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis (25 March 1992), 26: AAS 84 (1992), 698.

 

[116] Ibid., 25: AAS 84 (1992), 696.

 

[117] Saint Thomas Aquinas, S. Th. II-II, q. 188, a. 6.

 

[118] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975), 76: AAS 68 (1976), 68.

 

[119] Ibid., 75: AAS 68 (1976), 65.

 

[120] Ibid., 63: AAS 68 (1976), 53

 

[121] Ibid., 43: AAS 68 (1976), 33

 

[122] Ibid.

 

[123] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis (25 March 1992), 10: AAS 84 (1992), 672.

 

[124] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975), 40: AAS 68 (1976), 31.

 

[125] Ibid., 43: AAS 68 (1976), 33.

 

[126] Cf. Propositio 9.

 

[127] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Pastores Dabo Vobis (25 March 1992), 26: AAS 84 (1992), 698.

 

[128] Cf. Propositio 38.

 

[129] Cf. Propositio 20.

 

[130] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree on the Means of Social Communication Inter Mirifica, 6.

 

[131] Cf. De Musica, VI, 13, 38: PL 32, 1183-1184; Confessiones, IV, 13.20: PL 32, 701.

 

[133]S. Th., I-II, q. 65, a. 3, ad 2: “propter aliquas dispositiones contrarias”.

 

[134] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Asia (6 November 1999), 20: AAS 92 (2000), 481.

 

[135] Benedict XVI , Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Verbum Domini (30 September 2010), 1: AAS 102 (2010), 682.

 

[136] Cf. Propositio 11.

 

[137] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei Verbum, 21-22.

 

[138] Cf. Benedict XVI, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Verbum Domini (30 September 2010), 86-87: AAS 102 (2010), 757-760.

 

[140] Paul VI, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975), 17: AAS 68 (1976), 17.

 

[141] John Paul II, Message to the Handicapped, Angelus (16 November 1980): Insegnamenti, 3/2 (1980), 1232.

 

[142] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 52.

 

[143] John Paul, Catechesis (24 April 1991): Insegnamenti, 14/1 (1991), 853.

 

[144] Benedict XVI, Motu Proprio Intima Ecclesiae Natura (11 November 2012): AAS 104 (2012), 996.

 

[145] Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio (16 March 1967), 14: AAS 59 (1967), 264.

 

[146] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi
(8 December 1975), 29: AAS 68 (1976), 25.

 

[147] Fifth General Conference of the Latin American and Caribbean Bishops, Aparecida Document, 29 June 2007, 380.

 

[148] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 9.

 

[149] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America (22 January 1999), 27: AAS 91 (1999), 762.

 

[150] Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est (25 December 2005), 28: AAS 98 (2006), 239-240.

 

[151] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 12.

 

[152] Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens (14 May 1971), 4: AAS 63 (1971), 403.

 

[153] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Nuntius (6 August 1984), XI, 1: AAS 76 (1984), 903.

 

[154] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 157.

 

[155] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens (14 May 1971), 23: AAS 63 (1971), 418.

 

[156] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio (26 March 1967), 65: AAS 59 (1967), 289.

 

[157] Ibid., 15: AAS 59 (1967), 265.

 

[158] Conferência Nacional Dos Bispos Do Brazil, Exigências evangélicas e éticas de superação da miséria e da fome”(April 2002), Introduction, 2.

 

[159] John XIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra (15 May 1961), 3: AAS 53 (1961), 402.

 

[160] Saint Augustine, De Catechizandis Rudibus, I, XIX, 22: PL 40, 327.

 

[161] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Nuntius (6 August 1984), XI, 18: AAS 76 (1984), 907-908.

 

[162] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus
(1 May 1991), 41: AAS 83 (1991), 844-845.

 

[163] John Paul II, Homily at Mass for the Evangelization of Peoples in Santo Domingo (11 October 1984), 5: AAS 77 (1985), 358.

 

[164] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (30 December 1987), 42: AAS 80 (1988), 572.

 

[166] Saint Thomas Aquinas, S. Th., II-II, q. 27, a. 2.

 

[167] Ibid., I-II, q. 110, a. 1.

 

[168] Ibid., I-II, q. 26, a. 3.

 

[169] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte (6 January 2001), 50: AAS 93 (2001), 303.

 

[170] Ibid.

 

[171] Cf. Propositio 45.

 

[172] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Nuntius (6 August 1984), XI, 18: AAS 76 (1984), 908.

 

[173] This implies a commitment to “eliminate the structural causes of global economic dysfunction”: Benedict XVI,Address to the Diplomatic Corps (8 January 2007): AAS 99 (2007), 73.

 

[174] Cf. Commission Sociale de L’épiscopat Français, Réhabiliter la politique (17 February 1999); cf. PIUS XI, Message of 18 December 1927.

 

[175] Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter Caritas in Veritate (29 June 2009), 2: AAS 101 (2009), 642.

 

[176] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici (30 December 1988), 37: AAS 81 (1989), 461.

 

[177] Cf. Propositio 56.

 

[178] Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, Pastoral Letter What is Happening to our Beautiful Land? (29 January 1988).

 

[179] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio (26 March 1967), 76: AAS 59 (1967), 294-295.

 

[180] United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Pastoral Letter Forming Conscience for Faithful Citizenship(November 2007), 13.

 

[181] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 161.

 

[182]Das Ende der Neuzeit, Würzburg, 1965, 30-31.

 

[183] Cf. I. Quiles, S.J., Filosofía de la educación personalista, Buenos Aires, 1981, 46-53.

 

[184] Comité Permanent De La Conférence Épiscopale Nationale Du Congo, Message sur la situation sécuritaire dans le pays (5 December 2012), 11.

 

[185] Cf. Plato, Gorgias, 465.

 

[186] Benedict XVI, Address to the Roman Curia (21 December 2012): AAS 105 (2013), 51.

 

[187] Cf. Propositio 14.

 

[188] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1910; Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 168.

 

[189] Cf. Propositio 54.

 

[190] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio (14 September 1998), 88: AAS 91 (1999), 74.

 

[191] Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa contra Gentiles, I, 7; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio (14 September 1998), 43: AAS 91 (1999), 39.

 

[192] Second Vatican Council, Decree on Ecumenism Unitatis Redintegratio, 4.

 

[193] Cf. Propositio 52.

 

[194] Indian Bishops’ Conference, Final Declaration of the XXX Assembly: The Role of the Church for a Better India(8 March 2013), 8.9.

 

[195] Cf. Propositio 53.

 

[196] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio (7 December 1990), 56: AAS 83 (1991), 304.

 

[197] Cf. Benedict XVI, Address to the Roman Curia (21 December 2012): AAS 105 (2006), 51; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree on the Missionary Activity of the Church Ad Gentes, 9; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 856.

 

[198] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 16.

 

[199] International Theological Commission, Christianity and the World Religions (1996), 72: Enchiridion Vaticanum 15, No. 1061.

 

[200] Ibid.

 

[201] Cf. ibid., 81-87: Enchiridion Vaticanum 15, Nos. 1070-1076.

 

[202] Cf. Propositio 16.

 

[203] Benedict XVI, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Medio Oriente (14 September 2012), 26: AAS 104 (2012), 762.

 

[204] Cf. Propositio 55.

 

[205] Cf. Propositio 36.

 

[206] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte (6 January 2001), 52: AAS 93 (2001), 304.

 

[207] Cf. V.M. Fernández, “Espiritualidad para la esperanza activa. Discurso en la apertura del I Congreso Nacional de Doctrina Social de la Iglesia (Rosario 2011)”, in UCActualidad, 142 (2011), 16.

 

[208] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio (7 December 1990), 45: AAS 83 (1991), 292.

 

[209] Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter, Deus Caritas Est (25 December 2005), 16: AAS 98 (2006), 230.

 

[210] Ibid., 39: AAS 98 (2006), 250.

 

[211] Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Final Message, 1: L’Osservatore Romano, Weekly English-language edition, 27 October 1999, 5.

 

[212] Isaac of Stella, Sermo 51: PL 194, 1863, 1865.

 

[213]Nican Mopohua, 118-119.

 

[214] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 52-69.

 

[215] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Mater (25 March 1987), 6: AAS 79 (1987), 366-367.

 

[216] Cf. Propositio 58.

 

[217] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Mater (25 March 1987), 17: AAS 79 (1987), 381.

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